DIALEKTOLOGI BAHASA MELAYU DI PESISIR KABUPATEN PONTIANAK

Patriantoro Patriantoro

Abstract


Penelitian ini mengkaji dialektologi bahasa Melayu di Pesisir Kabupaten Pontianak, terutama di hilir sungai Mempawah. Bahasa Melayu ini digunakan oleh sebagian besar penduduk yang tinggal di pesisir pantai. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Pengumpulan data menggunakan metode percakapan, teknik pancing dengan menunjukkan gambar, benda, atau aktivitas. Metode yang digunakan dalam analisis data, yaitu komparatif sinkronis untuk analisis dialektologi dan komparatif diakronis untuk analisis rekontruksi bahasa. Rumus dialektometri digunakan untuk menghitung jarak unsur-unsur kebahasaan dalam persentase. Teknik rekonstruksi dari atas ke bawah (top down reconstruction) digunakan untuk menemukan retensi dan inovasi. Penghitungan bed4 leksikon antartitik pengamatan menggunakan segi tiga antardesa dan segi banyak. Berdasarkan analisis diketahui, hanya titik pengamatan 1-3 (yang mencapai 23%) dianggap beda wicara 'aksen'. Titik pengamatan 1-2, 2-3, 2-4, 3-4 (di bawah 21%) dianggap tidak ada perbedaan. Di daerah penelitian masih ditemukan adanya leksikon proto, inovasi, dan pinjaman.

 

The research discusses the dialectology of Malay used by the people in the coastal area of Pontianak, particularly those who live in the downstream area of the river. Malay has been used by a great number of people who reside in the coastal area. This research employs quantitative as well as qualitative research methods. The data collected through the use of in-depth interview method and elicitation technique by directly showing the pictures, pointing the areal objects, or explaining the intended activities. The synchronic comparative method is used to analyze the dialectology of Malay and the diachronic comparative method is used to help with the analysis of the language construction. The dialectometry is used to figure the percentage of lexicon differences between the research areas. The top down reconstruction technique serves as the way to analyze the data to find the retention and innovation forms. The lexicon differences in different areas are calculated by applying the triangular or polygones de thiessen. The result of the data analysis shows that area 1-3 hold 23% of lexicon different which indicates that they are areas with different wicara, but still share same dialect. However areas L-2,2-3, 2-4, 3-4 hold under 21% of lexicon differences which indicates that they share the same and not different. In the areas where the research is conducted, some of the relic from of the proto-language are still found, as well as the innovation forms the borrowing.



Keywords


komparatif sinkronis; komparatif diakronis; rekonstruksi bahasa; synchronic comparative; diachronic comparative; language reconstruction.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26499/wdprw.v40i2.56

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