MODEL KESANTUNAN BERBAHASA SISWA TIONGHOA DI SEKOLAH PAH TSUNG JAKARTA: KAJIAN ETNOGRAFI KOMUNIKASI

Muhammad Yusuf Saputro, Wini Tarmini, Ade Hikmat

Abstract


This research is aimed to know and describe further detail about how the politeness in the language of Chinese students at Pah Tsung School Jakarta, by looking at the forms of politeness used by Chinese students in speaking. The research approach used was a qualitative approach with an ethnographic study of communication methods. The researcher collected research data using literature/documentation methods, records, interviews, direct observation, and FGD with language and language politeness experts. Then, the data were analyzed using the content analysis method equipped with analysis tables. The data of this research are in the form of studentsand teachers speeches both written and oral. According to that, it was discovered that ten forms of politenesses of Leech (2014) were implemented, namely generosity maxim of 5.3%, tact maxim of 12.4%, approbation maxim of 6.2%, modesty maxim of 0.9%, obligation S to O maxim of 18.6%, obligation O to S maxim of 8,8%, agreement maxim of 19,5%, opinion reticence maxim of 20,4%, sympathy maxim of 5,3%, and feeling reticence maxim of 2,7%. Based on these results, the forms of Chinese students’ politeness language at Pah Tsung School are dominated by the opinion reticence maxim, the agreement maxim, and the obligation S to O maxim. The lingual forms in speaking also have unique characteristics in each maxim.

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan mendeskripsikan secara mendalam model kesantunan berbahasa siswa Tionghoa di Sekolah Pah Tsung Jakarta dengan melihat wujud-wujud kesantunan berbahasa yang dipergunakan siswa Tionghoa dalam bertutur. Pendekatan penelitian yang digunakan yakni pendekatan kualitatif dengan metode etnografi komunikasi. Peneliti mengumpulkan data penelitian dengan metode pustaka/dokumentasi, rekam, wawancara, observasi langsung, dan FGD dengan pakar bahasa dan kesantunan berbahasa. Pengolahan data menggunakan metode analisis isi yang dilengkapi dengan tabel analisis. Data penelitian ini berupa tuturan siswa dan guru, baik secara lisan maupun tulis. Pada tuturan tersebut, diperoleh hasil sebagai berikut: penerapan wujud dari sepuluh kesantunan Leech (2014), yaitu generosity maxim 5,3%, tact maxim 12,4%, approbation maxim 6,2%, modesty maxim 0,9%, obligation S to O maxim 18,6%, obligation O to S maxim 8,8%, agreement maxim 19,5%, opinion reticence maxim 20,4%, sympathy maxim 5,3%, dan  feeling reticence maxim 2,7%. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut model kesantunan berbahasa siswa Tionghoa di Sekolah Pah Tsung didominasi oleh opinion reticence maxim, agreement maxim, dan obligation S to O maxim. Penanda lingual yang digunakan dalam petuturan pun memiliki karakteristik yang khas pada setiap maksimnya.


Keywords


politeness in language; maxim; Chinese students; ethnography communication; kesantunan berbahasa; maksim; siswa Tionghoa; etnografi komunikasi

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26499/wdprw.v48i2.646

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